HOW TO MAKE RED WINE FROM GRAPE JUICE
Theme: Red Wine
Wine is a kind of alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes. Fruit wines, also known as country wines, are made from fermented fruits. Modern wine, on the other hand, is made from wine grapes. Wine has several qualities that all contribute to the overall consistency of the wine. A well-made wine would have well-balanced characteristics.
There are 5 different types of wine, including white wine, red wine, rose wine, sweet wine and sparkling wine. Therefore, each wine has its characteristics, taste, and enjoyment. If you are a fan of red wine, then surely this article is for you.
II. What is red wine
To begin, red wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermenting the juice of dark-skinned grapes. Red wine is distinguished from white wine by its base material and manufacturing methods. Red wine is produced from dark-skinned grapes as opposed to light-skinned grapes.
During the making of red wine, the winemaker allows pressed grape juice, known as must, to macerate and ferment with the dark grape skins, adding color, flavor, and tannin to the wine. As yeast transforms grape sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide, alcohol is produced. “Red wine” is the end product of these operations.
III. Red wine characteristics
Red wine gets its 4 distinctive characteristics: color, tannin, flavor and aroma, and acid.
The color is the first and most noticeable feature of red wine. The color of red wines ranges from rich, transparent purple to pale ruby and everything in between. Red wine’s vivid, youthful colors fade as it ages, becoming garnet and even brown.
The tannin in red wine is the second distinguishing feature. Red wines are produced by macerating grape juice with the skins, roots, and occasionally even the leaves, a process known as whole cluster fermentation. Many of these grape bunch components contribute tannins to the wine.
Tannins are polyphenols that give wine texture, shape, and age-ability. They trigger the drying feeling in the mouth that is similar to black tea. Tannins can be found ripe, smooth, or well-integrated into wine at times, while others can be viewed as earthy, green, or aromatic. Tannins provide form or foundation to wine, just like a skeleton. They relax with age, which is why many people believe that fresh, tannic wines are better enjoyed after a few years in the bottle.
Flavor and aroma
The third distinguishing feature of red wine is its wide variety of flavors. Fruit, flower, herb, spice, and earthy aromas are produced by various grape varieties. Pinot Noir, for example, has notes of raspberry, plum, and forest floor, while Cabernet Sauvignon has notes of cassis, butterscotch, and wet gravel.
These tastes and scents are not applied to the wine; however, they are part of the wine’s distinct organoleptic properties, which are derived from organic compounds present in acids and grape skins. The features of red wine vary from those of white wine due to the grape variety and interaction with the skins during maceration and fermentation.
Acidity is the fourth attribute of red wine. Acid is an important part of wine because it acts as a preservative as well as providing freshness and structure. When drinking red wine, the tart and sour characteristics that complement the sweet and bitter or tannin elements are viewed as acidity. Red wine contains a variety of acids, the most common of which are tartaric and malic.
IV. Types of red wine
With different flavors of red wine grapes, there is as much red wine knowledge to discover as there are red grapes grown around the world. Having said that, you’re likely to come across just a few of these grapes regularly. The flavor profiles and regions of the most popular red wine grapes are covered in this section. You should go beyond this shortlist to learn more, but for a fast and simple red wine 101, the following will suffice.
1. Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is cultivated all over the world but only reaches perfection, and is the primary component of great Bordeaux and the defining grape of the Napa Valley. It grows late and can become weedy and even vegetal in colder climate regions like Chile. It is almost always mixed in Bordeaux and Tuscany to soften the highly astringent tannins. The Napa-style is thick, purple-black, jammy, and has a blackcurrant and cherry flavor.
Merlot is the second-most planted grape, and it’s a perfect place to start if you’re new to red wine. The wine is really “simple” to drink, which means it’s fruity and delicious without making your mouth pucker with tannins.
This wine, known as Syrah in France and other European countries and Shiraz in Australia, South America, and elsewhere, is simply enjoyable to drink—it can be peppery, fiery, and bold, with flavors of rich fruits like blackberry. After a busy day, get this one out anytime you want to sit down with a book and a bottle of wine and just taste something.
Sangiovese is Italy’s most common red grape and is synonymous with Tuscany, specifically Chianti. This wine will do strange things to the lips, as the acids will make it sweat and the tannins will cling to the sides. Tobacco, dirt, and pepper can also be detected. There’s a lot going on in this one.
Nebbiolo, another Italian favorite, has heavy tannins and a lot of acids. It’s a tough wine because the light hue belies the wild taste that’s about to hit you. It is produced in northern Italy and is the grape used to make the popular Barolo and Barbaresco wines. This wine’s flavors get more interesting and subtle as it ages, making it a perfect one to splurge on… and then save for a special occasion.
About its French origins, the majority of the world’s Malbec is now made in Argentina, so you’ll always see the country on the bottle. It’s another easy-drinking wine with a deep purple color and flavors of plum or cherry that finish with a touch of smoke. It’s another hit with the fans.
Zinfandels are often linked with mothers for whatever reason (the ad efforts of the 1990s). Zinfandel is an intriguing wine because the flavor varies greatly depending on where it is produced, but it is normally sweet and juicy and high in alcohol content. Think of juicy, spicy strawberries that will have you crushed.
8. Pinot Noir
Pinot Noir is the grape that winemakers despise the most; it is the most beautiful, sexiest, challenging, and unpredictable of all. Burgundy is the model for perfect Pinot Noir, but even there, the grape is flighty, delicate, and resistant to obstinately weedy flavors.
This Mediterranean red grape is particularly common in France and Spain, where it produces medium-bodied, gently spiced wines with pretty, cherry-flavored fruit. The best places often impart a distinct minerality to the fruit. Any old-vine Mourvedre plantings exist in California and Australia, where it is usually blended with Shiraz and Grenache.
V. Benefits of red wine
For hundreds of years, red wine has been a part of social, religious, and cultural gatherings. Monasteries in the Middle Ages concluded that their monks enjoyed longer lives because they drank wine on a daily and modest basis. In recent years, science has shown that these statements might be true.
Many sources say that drinking red wine has health benefits because it contains potent antioxidants. Red wine, which is made from crushed dark grapes, is a comparatively high source of resveratrol, a natural antioxidant found in grape tissue. Antioxidants protect the body from oxidative stress. Many illnesses, including cancer and heart disease, have been linked to oxidative stress. Fruits, seeds, and vegetables are only a few examples of antioxidant-rich foods.
Whole grapes and berries have more resveratrol than red wine, and because of the health dangers associated with alcohol consumption, having antioxidants from foods is likely to be more beneficial than consuming wine. People will need to consume a large amount of red wine to get enough resveratrol to have an impact, which may do more damage than good.
1. Heart protection
Red wine can have some cardioprotective benefits, according to a new study, and drinking red wine has been attributed to a lower risk of contracting heart disease. However, the American Heart Association raises a concern about the new findings, noting that there is no known cause-and-effect relationship and that many other causes, such as dietary patterns, may play a role.
2. Inflammation avoidance
Red wine is high in polyphenols such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, catechins, and tannins (proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins). Resveratrol, in particular, is present in foods such as grapes, almonds, cocoa, and some berries, in addition to red wine.
According to research, the phenolic compounds in red wine have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Not only does literature show that drinking red wine can lower insulin resistance, but it can also lower oxidative stress.
3. Mood improvement
Moderate alcohol consumption has been attributed to improved mood. According to a 2014 survey, people who drank a glass of wine in an unfavorable atmosphere had the same degree of mood change as someone who was a teetotaler in a more comfortable environment.
4. Longevity enhancement
Blame it on the sedative properties of alcohol. Long-term demographic studies have associated moderate alcohol consumption with a longer life expectancy. According to research, it is possible to enhance the efficacy of resveratrol by eating a well-balanced diet rich in nutrient-dense foods rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
5. Mind concentration
Wine’s flavonoids can protect cells in your body that help healthy blood vessels — a crucial physiological advantage that can boost blood flow to the brain and prevent dangerous plaque from forming. Animal studies indicate that resveratrol, in particular, can help to prevent age-related memory loss.
VI. How to make red wine from grape juice
Red winemaking differs from white winemaking in one crucial way: the juice is fermented with grape skins to turn it red. Of course, red winemaking is about more than just the colour. Learning about the process unlocks consistency and taste secrets that can help you develop your palate. So, let’s go over each stage of how red wine is made, from grapes to bottle.
VII. How to drink red wine in style
Red wines are rich and nuanced, and they will take your culinary experiences to a whole new level. When you taste what red wines have to say, determining which red wines you enjoy can be a fascinating experiment. If you’ve determined which red wines you choose, couple them with complementary foods and share them with your mates. So, if you ever want to learn more about red wine, consider visiting a winery that offers red wine tastings.
Follow these interesting steps to see how red wine is made from grapes to bottle, step by step. Interestingly, nothing has changed since we first made wine 8,000 years ago.
Step 1: Harvest red wine grapes
In this step: The vintner decides when to harvest and whether to harvest by hand or machine. Red wine grapes, on average, ripen later in the season than white wine grapes.
Red wine is made from black (also known as purple) wine grapes. In reality, the anthocyanin (red pigment) present in black grape skins is responsible for much of the color in a glass of red wine.
The most important thing to remember during the grape harvest is to choose the grapes when they are perfectly ripe. It’s important because grapes don’t keep ripening after they’ve been picked.
There are two things to notice:
- Picking grapes too early will result in tart and thin-tasting wines.
- Wines made from late-picked grapes can taste overly ripe and flabby.
Step 2: Prepare grapes for fermentation
In this step: Destemming grape bunches To add tannin, certain vintners ferment whole colonies. When the grapes cold soak, the must is analyzed. To prevent microbial development, most winemakers add sulfur dioxide during this process.
Grapes are transported to the winery after they have been harvested. The winemaker chooses whether to cut the stems or ferment the grape bunches whole.
This is a significant decision because leaving the stems in the fermentation adds astringency while reducing sourness. Pinot Noir, for example, often ferments with whole clusters, but Cabernet Sauvignon does not.
Sulfur dioxide is often applied to the grapes during this process to prevent bacterial spoilage before fermentation begins. See this eye-opening post on sulfites and your wellbeing.
Step 3: Yeast starts the wine fermentation
In this step: Yeasts (wild or commercial) consume grape sugars to produce alcohol, CO2, and heat. Red wines ferment for an average of 5 – 21 days at 20 – 30 degrees Celsius and are often left to macerate after grape fermentation is over.
Tiny sugar-eating yeasts digest the grape sugars and produce alcohol. The yeasts either come from a commercial box (similar to what you’d see in bread making) or appear naturally in the juice.
You can find naturally yeast on grapes for the progress of fermentation:
- Commercial yeasts allow winemakers to deliver highly consistent wines year after year.
- Natural yeasts are more difficult to work with, but the results are also more complex aromatics.
Step 4: Alcoholic fermentation
In this step: Red wine gets its colour and taste from grape skins. Vintners punch down grapes or pump-over the must during fermentation to keep the skins submerged.
Winemakers use a variety of techniques to fine-tune the wine during fermentation. The fermenting wine, for example, is constantly mixed to submerge the skins (they float!). One method is to pour wine over the top.
The other method is to use a tool that resembles a giant potato masher to punch down the “cap” of floating grape skins:
- Pumpovers derive a lot of flavor from the grape skins, resulting in rich reds.
- Punch downs extract flavors more delicately, resulting in more subtle red wines.
Step 5: Press the wine
In this step: Vintners remove the easily flowing wine from the tank after fermentation and press the skins and seed for any remaining press wine.
Most wines ferment sugar into alcohol in 5 – 21 days. A few exceptional examples, such as Vin Santo and Amarone, will take anything from 50 days to 4 years to completely ferment.
Vintners remove the easily flowing wine from the tank after fermentation and press the remaining skins in a wine press. Pressing the skins yields around 15% more wine for winemakers.
Step 6: Second fermentation (Malolactic fermentation)
In this step: A second fermentation occurs as the wine settles in tanks or barrels. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is the process by which bacteria turn harsh malic acid into softer, chocolatey-tasting lactic acid.
A second “fermentation” occurs as the red wine sits in tanks or containers. A microbe feeds on the wine acids, converting the sharp-tasting malic acid into the creamier, chocolatey lactic acid.
Malolactic Fermentation (MLF) is seen in almost all red wines, but only a few white wines. Chardonnay is a well-known white wine. MLF is in control of Chardonnay’s smooth and buttery flavors.
Step 7: Elevage
In this step: For several months to several years, red wine is aged in barriers or reservoirs. Oak barrels add aromatic compounds (such as vanillin) and subtle oxidation of red wines.
Red wines are stored in a number of containers, including wooden bottles, concrete, glass, clay, and stainless steel tanks. Each vessel has a different effect on wine as it ages. Wooden barrels have the most noticeable effect on wine. The oak wood itself imparts natural compounds that smell like vanilla to the wine. Unlined concrete and clay tanks soften the wine by eliminating acidity.
Of course, the most important factor influencing red wine flavors is time. The longer a wine sits, the more chemical reactions take place within the liquid. Red wines, according to others, get cleaner and more nutty with maturity.
Step 8: Blending the wine
In this step: To make the finished wine, the winemaker mixes grape varieties or bottles. Since the scent hasn’t fully developed, winemakers frequently depend on texture.
It’s time to produce the final blend now that the wine has matured and rested. To create a finished wine, a winemaker mixes grape varieties or separate barrels of the same grape. Blending wine is difficult because you would use your palate’s sense of texture rather than your nose. The blending tradition gave birth to many popular wine blends around the world.
Step 9: Clarifying the wine
In this step: Proteins are removed by clarifying or fining agents. The wine is then filtered for sanitation. Any wines are not fined or filtered.
The clarification method is one of the final stages in the production of red wine. Some winemakers use clarifying or “fining” agents to isolate the wine’s suspended proteins (proteins make wine cloudy). Winemakers commonly use fining agents such as casein or egg whites, but there is an increasing number of winemakers who use bentonite clay because it is vegan.
The wine is then sterilized by passing it through a filter. This is important because it eliminates the possibility of bacterial spoilage. Of course, many good winemakers do not fine or filter their wines because they feel it removes texture and consistency. It’s up to you to know whether or not that’s valid.
Step 10: Bottling and labeling wines
In this step: Bottling takes place with little to no exposure to oxygen. Sulfur dioxide is also applied at this stage to help stabilize the wine. Some wines are aged in bottles for years before being released.
It’s almost time to bottle our champagne. It is important to perform this process with as little exposure to oxygen as possible. To further conserve the wine, a small amount of sulfur dioxide is often added.
Finally, a few rare wines can be found aging for years in the winemaker’s cellar. In reality, if you look up different types of red wines (such as Rioja or Brunello di Montalcino), you’ll see that this phase is considered essential for reserve bottlings.
VIII. Tips to make red wine
1. Choice of red wine
Choose a Cabernet Sauvignon for a well-balanced, traditional red wine. Cabernet Sauvignon is a renowned wine that is served all over the world. It tastes like black cherry, currants, and a hint of bell peppers. Cabernet Sauvignons often have a distinctly oaky aroma with hints of herbs and vanilla. Cabernet Sauvignons are a perfect red wine to experiment with because they fall somewhere between dry and sweet.
If you want a dry wine with rich fruity flavors, try a Red Zinfandel. Zinfandels are popular for their dark fruit flavors, such as black cherry, raisin, prune, and blackberry. They frequently have smoky or spicy undertones. Their fragrance is often described as a blend of vanilla, jam, and oak. Zinfandels are another excellent place to start if you’re new to red wine. Their flavors are fluid and assertive.
If you want a simple table wine, go with Merlot. Merlots are simple to drink and can be used in a variety of conditions, but they lack sophistication as compared to other red wines. They have rich, fruity flavors reminiscent of bananas, cherries, plums, and even watermelon. Merlots could be for you if you have a sweeter palate. While not all Merlots are soft, they do not have heavy tannins and therefore do not provide the sensation in your mouth that dry wines do.
If you want a wine with nuanced flavors, go for Pinot Noir. The taste and fragrance of a Pinot Noir will vary based on the climate in the area where the grapes were produced. They can contain flavors such as raspberries, cloves, licorice, cherries, blackberries, and plums. Some include roasted onion, beet, and rose petal notes. If you’re looking for a red wine that will make you sit and think about its taste profile, Pinot Noir is the wine for you!
When you pour yourself a glass of red wine, make sure to choose the appropriate glass for the kind of red wine you’ll be drinking. Both reds taste better when served in glasses or big, rounded cups.
Lighter reds, on the other hand, benefit from a shorter bottle, which brings the nose closer to the drink. Bolder reds are typically served in a slightly taller glass to enable the strong aromas to travel about before reaching the nose.
The selection of a red wine glass has a lot to do with reducing the bitterness of tannin or spicy flavors to produce a smoother tasting wine. There is one thing to notice is that red wines taste smoother when served in a bottle with a big opening. Of course, the space between you and the fluid influences what you smell.
3. Food pairing
Red wine’s many styles and composition make it an excellent option for the dinner table. When confronted with heavy flavors, red wine has a firmer structure than traditional white and rosé wines.
Fuller-bodied red wines, in general, match well with denser, richer foods, while medium-bodied reds with high acidity pair well with lighter fare, such as roasted chicken and vegetable dishes. Effective and harmonious pairings result by matching the weight of the wine with the richness of the cuisine.
The adage, “what rises together, goes together,” still applies here. Classic tomato sauce Italian dishes, for example, go well with Chianti’s high-acid red wines. In general, a region’s wine can complement the food and lifestyle of the region.
IX. How to store red wine
Curating a wine range that is exclusive to your tastes is one of the many joys of learning about and drinking wine. However, selecting and purchasing wines is just part of the process; they must also be processed. When properly stored, wine will last for decades, if not centuries, increasing in value and quality. However, even the best wines in the world can be ruined by improper handling.
1. Keep wine at the proper temperature
Temperature is one of the most significant influences affecting the consistency of stored wine. Temperatures that are too hot or too cold are a sure way to ruin wine. In general, the optimal temperature for long-term or short-term wine storage is about 55ºF (13ºC), although this varies depending on the wine.
Consult the producer for temperature instructions for individual wines. Wine can never be stored below 25°F (-4°C), which can allow it to freeze, or above 68°F (20°C), which can speed up the aging process and kill volatile compounds.
Most importantly, keep your wine storage temperature as constant as possible: temperature changes will cause the cork to expand and compress, causing wine (or air) to seep out (or in) around it.
2. Light and vibration can be avoided when storing wine
If you’re keeping it for months, weeks, or days, leave it as dark as possible. UV rays from direct sunlight will wreak havoc on the flavors and aromas of wine. Keep wines away from sources of sound, such as the washer and dryer, gym room, or stereo system. Vibrations can damage sediments in the bottle, interfering with the fragile mechanism that allows wines to age well.
3. Keep wine at the proper humidity
Extreme humidity in your wine cellar or storage room will also have an effect on the longevity of your wine. Lower humidity levels can allow corks to dry out, exposing the wine to the effects of oxygen, while higher humidity levels can cause labels to peel off the bottles, making them impossible to view or sell. In general, the humidity level in your wine cellar should be between 60 and 68 percent.
4. Use wine cooler to store wine
A wine refrigerator (also known as a wine cooler) is a smart choice if you don’t have a wine storage room that is reliably cold, quiet, and damp. Unlike a regular refrigerator, which keeps food very cold and dry, a wine fridge keeps wine between 50 – 60˚F (10 – 15˚C) and at the correct humidity.
Keep the wine in a dedicated wine fridge to avoid cross-contamination with food odors. If cost is an issue, keep in mind that wine can be an investment, and a good wine fridge is a good way to secure that investment.
5. Properly store open bottles
An opened bottle of wine can be stored properly for 3 – 5 days. Recorking an open wine quickly and firmly is the secret to extending its shelf life and retaining its original qualities. To recork wine, wrap it in wax paper and slip it back into its original spot. The wax will ease the cork into the top to ensure that no stray cork pieces fall into the bottle.
If recorking isn’t an alternative, such as if the cork is splintered or has been discarded, a rubber wine stopper may provide a strong seal. Finally, a wine vacuum pump, which allows you to suck the air out of an open bottle, providing a nearly airtight seal, is an enhancement choice for recorking.
Overwhelmed by the variety of red wines available? Want to arm yourself with a little insight before the next wine tasting? This article is what you are looking for.
This article show you some useful information about wine in general and red wine in particular.
Besides, red wine is not only the perfect wine for customers, but it is also the best alcoholic beverage in general. Red wine has been shown to be the healthiest and most beneficial drink for users based on the level of antioxidants available and the amount of resveratrol.